The amplifier can operate safely when connected to a 2-ohm load (two 4-ohm speakers wired in parallel to one channel of the amplifier), producing up to 100% more power than if connected to a 4-ohm load
An input on the face or rear of the receiver that enables you to connect a plug-and-play satellite radio tuner or portable music player (CD, MP3, or cassette) to the receiver. The input jack can be either Mini or RCA.
Butyl rubber has greater internal loss than standard urethane, preventing harmonic distortion at higher frequencies. It more efficiently absorbs edge reflections that can cause audible distortion, resulting in clearer bass performance
Power stabilizing capacitors store the necessary power amplifiers need to punch larger bass notes while limiting clipping. They store energy during intervals when it is not required, which is most of the time, and release it when demand exceeds what is available from the car’s power system
A type of speaker basket or frame that is cast as a single piece of relatively thick, rigid metal. This contrasts with a Stamped frame that is shaped by pressure, much like a car body fender. Cast metal is heavier and more rigid, and thus less likely to “ring” at certain frequencies, and will hold its shape somewhat longer against the pull of gravity. This is mainly advantageous in the larger woofers of 12″ or greater. Smaller drivers will likely not benefit perceptibly from being cast.
On May 28, 2003, the Consumer Electronics Association published standard CEA-2006, “Testing & Measurement Methods for Mobile Audio Amplifiers.” This “voluntary” standard advocates a uniform method for determining an amplifier’s RMS power and signal-to-noise ratio. Using 14.4 volts, RMS watts are measured into a 4-ohm impedance load at 1 percent Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) plus noise, at a frequency range (for general purpose amplifiers) of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Signal-to-Noise ratio is measured in weighted absolute decibels (dBA) at a reference of 1 watt into 4 ohms. This applies to both external amplifiers and the amplifiers within in-dash receivers.
A speaker composed of larger cone for low range frequencies and a smaller cone or tweeter for higher frequencies aligned on the same axis. A crossover network is necessary to route the proper signals to each driver. These may be passive (usually included). If the speakers are bi-amplified, an active crossover will be used to route the proper range of frequencies to the respective amplifier channels.
A selective filter, which splits signals into different frequency bands that can be fed independently to separate speakers. A passive crossover filters signals after they have been amplified. An active crossover (more effective and flexible) filters signals before amplification, sending different signals to different amps.
One-Tenth of a Bel. This is a measurement of the comparative strength of two powers, and can be applied when measuring any signal in the audio, video, and electromagnetic spectrum. If two powers differ by one Bel, there is a difference of 10 times the power. If comparing amplifiers, where one is rated at 10 watts while the other is 100 watts, then we have a difference of 10 decibels, or one Bel. Decibels should be understood as ratios, not fixed quantities.
Digital Signal Processing (or Processor). A type of processing accomplished by a microcomputer chip specifically designed for signal manipulation, or a component using such processing. The term is often misused as a synonym for ambience synthesizer; however, DSP can do much more than sound field creation.
A built-in EQ lets you tailor the sound to your listening tastes and to your vehicle’s acoustics. Receivers with built-in EQs will have one or more equalizer “bands” in addition to standard bass and treble controls. These equalizer “bands” usually have fixed center frequencies and bandwidths (although some may be adjustable).
Preset EQ curves are stored tone settings Ã¢â‚¬â€ boosting and cutting different frequencies can make big changes in the way your music sounds. Preset EQ curves are stored in memory, and are easily activated. If you listen to a wide variety of music, these presets are useful for making dramatic tonal changes instantly. (For example, you could use one EQ preset with heavy bass boost for rap or reggae, and a second preset with flat bass and a slight midrange/treble boost for jazz. This saves you from constant readjustment of the tone controls.)
Driver free air resonance, in Hz. This is the point at which driver impedance is maximum. “This parameter is the free-air resonant frequency of a speaker. Simply stated, it is the point at which the weight of the moving parts of the speaker becomes balanced with the force of the speaker suspension when in motion. If you’ve ever seen a piece of string start humming uncontrollably in the wind, you have seen the effect of reaching a resonant frequency. It is important to know this information so that you can prevent your enclosure from ‘ringing’. With a loudspeaker, the mass of the moving parts, and the stiffness of the suspension (surround and spider) are the key elements that affect the resonant frequency. As a general rule of thumb, a lower Fs indicates a woofer that would be better for low-frequency reproduction than a woofer with a higher Fs. This is not always the case though, because other parameters affect the ultimate performance as well.”
The cylindrical portion of a speaker’s voice coil section. A wire is wound around this cylinder to form a coil such that when current interacts with the magnetic field it produces a pumping motion that alternatively compresses and rarifies air, and creates the velocity for such air masses to reach our ears as sound.
The amount of amplification used in an electrical circuit. Ground: The electrical neutral line having the same potential as the surrounding earth; the negative side of a direct current power system; the reference point for an electrical system.
A ground loop occurs when any piece of equipment or any incoming wire is connected to a different ground or grounds. If your in-dash receiver and amplifier are grounded to different locations, for example, a ground loop may occur. In this situation, the multiple ground paths can, in effect, act as an antenna for interference. The interference is turned into noise, and you hear it in your system.
Term which refers to a set of speaker components used to reproduce frequencies above 500 Hz as in a set of separates. May also refer to tweeters which are used to reproduce frequencies usually above 2.5 kHz. Not bass.
A device which has the ability to attract or repel pieces of iron or other magnetic material. Speaker magnets provide a stationary magnetic field so that when the coil produces magnetic energy, it is either repelled or attracted by the stationary magnet.
A multi-band equalizer enabling control of at least three essential “parameters” of the internal bandpass filter sections. These parameters being: amplitude, center frequency and bandwidth. This allows the user to not only control the amplitude of each band, but also to shift the center frequency and to widen or narrow the width or coverage of the affected section of the aural spectrum. Regulation is done by either rotary and slide controls. Other types of parametric equalizers exist which allow control of center frequency, but not bandwidth. For rotary control units, the most common term is quasi-parametric. For units with slide controls the popular term is paragraphic. The frequency control may be continuously variable or switch selectable in steps. Cut-only parametric equalizers (with adjustable bandwidth or not) are called notch equalizers, or band-reject equalizers
Peak power is measured during a brief musical burst, such as a sudden drum accent. Some manufacturers display peak power ratings on the face of their products. The RMS power rating is more significant, and we recommend using it for comparison purposes.
Jacks on the rear of a CD receiver that allow you to use a standard RCA patch cable to add an external amp. Some receivers have two sets, which help if you plan to add a 4-channel amp or a second amp. Some receivers have three sets, one of which is usually intended to be used for a subwoofer amp.
The voice coil is the coil of wire fixed to a cylinder at the apex of the loudspeaker cone that interacts with a magnetic field. With the help of other speaker components, the voice coil is the active transducer that converts electrical signals from the amplifier or receiver into mechanical energy, which we hear as sound. The voice coil cylinder is the part of the speaker around which the voice coil is wound. More advanced speakers offer a heat-resistant voice coil to prolong speaker life.
A measure of a speaker cone’s maximum Excursion (back and forth motion) in one direction while still maintaining a linear behavior (moving in a straight line with high precision). This factor is measured in inches or millimeters. X max is more precisely defined as the width of the voice coil that extends beyond the front plate plus 15%. This relates to how far the speaker can move in either direction without appreciable distortion.